Summary: The distribution and abundance of three Camelina species introduced to Canada is unknown, but critical for evaluating the risks associated with unconfined release of transgenic Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (2n = 40). Furthermore, previous reports suggest Canadian populations of Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC. vary for ploidy and ability to hybridize with C. sativa. We completed 8 weeks of field work in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. We determined the ploidy composition of the populations found. We did not locate Camelina alyssum (Mill.) Thell., but located four sites with C. sativa and 34 with C. microcarpa. Eleven C. microcarpa populations were tetraploid (2n = 26, 1.00pg/2C) and 22 were hexaploid (2n = 40, 1.50pg/2C), while two populations were mixed. We examined material from botanical gardens and plant gene resource centres assessing total nuclear DNA content and completing chromosome counts for each species and cytotype identified, to determine whether tetraploid and hexaploid C. microcarpa were included in these collections. No tetraploid material was included in the C. microcarpa accessions received; however, a diploid (2n = 12, 0.54pg/2C) was found. Given the current geographic ranges, abundance, and chromosome counts of these species, the greatest risk of hybridization with transgenic C. sativa is from hexaploid C. microcarpa.